The Art of Manliness has a list of a few dozen key slang terms used in Victorian times.
Some are merely amusing:
Fart Catcher A valet or footman, from his walking behind his master or mistress
Some give a sense of what the dangers of the times were:
Sneeze-lurker A thief who throws snuff in a person’s face, and then robs him
And some are words I wish were still in use:
Hobbadehoy A youth who has ceased to regard himself as a boy, and is not yet regarded as a man
Rumbumptious Haughty, pugilistic